Hexagonal Tile Ensemble with Sphinx, ca. 1160s–70s

From “Subject / Responsible” to “Pain Token / Distributed Change”

Implementing Pain Tracing Blockchain into Organizations (6)

2 min readSep 18, 2021


The use of AI and routing algorithms, described to illustrate the idea of pain tokens, is very conceptual, and realistically, it raises a variety of issues, especially around AI specification changes, such as lack of data, the impossibility of replication, unclear tasks, how to define rewards, and learning failures.

Considering these factors, routing change rules can be done mechanically, without the aid of machine learning, with straightforward rules whose meaning is obvious to everyone. However, in that case, the ability to adapt to the environment may be sacrificed. The point is to make it automated, decentralized, and explicit so that the responsibility and discretion of specific entities become as irrelevant as possible.

Then, if such a system were to work, the question might arise, “Who should be responsible if an organizational change occurs that is unfortunate for someone else?”

However, making a specific person or entity take responsibility is no longer effective in maintaining the system when it becomes complicated. It follows that the pain token is an attempt to replace the “subject / responsibility” pair with a “pain token / distributed change” pair.

Original idea and articles by Asaki NISHIKAWA, Draft written by Toshihiro FURUYA and Moya, Simultaneous editing by VECTION

This article is based on the “Blockchain and Revolution: What are the conditions under which decentralization can be a ‘revolution’?” and “r/place subjects and governance: Blockchain and interfaces that invite revolution.” We have extracted, added, and re-edited the parts describing pain tokens and PS3.