Christ Blessing, Surrounded by a Donor Family https://www.metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/437466
Christ Blessing, Surrounded by a Donor Family
https://www.metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/325529

Tripartite Separation of Powers Has Virtually a Two-layered Structure

Fixing Vulnerabilities in the Tripartite Separation of Powers (Part II)

1. The tripartite separation of powers has a two-layered structure between the people and the government

Japan, the U.S., European countries, and other countries use the tripartite separation of powers to divide the state's authority. It comprises the “three powers” (“executive,” “judiciary,” and “legislative”), and also the “people” as the subject of evaluation, namely the sovereign.

(Left) The formal, legal division of powers / (Right) Virtually two-layered structure
(Left) The formal, legal division of powers / (Right) Virtually two-layered structure

2. Problems of the two-layered structure

The preceding diagram is only an ideological structure. In the actual power structure, the black arrows are often reversed. In this situation, the remainder of the people is dominated by some of the party and vested interest groups.

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